A stem cell is any cell that can differentiate (transform and discern) as well as replicate. A stem cell can multiply and turn into different kinds of tissues. In the human body, there are many kinds of stem cells. Swiss Stem Cells Biotech SA does NOT use any of the controversial stem cell types. Another type of cell is the adult stem cell, which is also called a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). The MSCs come from the mesodermal section of the body and can differentiate into cartilage, bone, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue. SSCB utilizes mesenchymal stem cells derived from the stromal vascular fraction surrounding fat cells
Adult stem cells reside in one’s own body. The two most common sites for obtaining these cells are from the bone marrow and adipose (fat) tissue. These stem cells are considered multipotent, and they can only give rise to cartilage and bone tissue. When the stem cells are obtained from the bone marrow, they are cultured in a laboratory so they can multiply their numbers. Fat is loaded with MSCs, having thousands more per milliliter than bone marrow.
Adult stem cells (ASCs), also called progenitor cells, remain dormant (do nothing) until they have contact with some type of tissue injury. When injury or trauma occur, these cells become active and migrate to the area of injury to stimulate the healing process. Researchers believe ASCs send signals to damaged or injured body tissue and induce repair, or they can change into the type of injured tissue that is in need of repair.
Therapy with stem cells depends on the type of degenerative condition or disease you have. Stem cell therapy is used to treat musculoskeletal problems, such as torn rotator cuffs, injured knee ligaments, joint dysfunction, degenerative spine disease, pulmonary conditions, diseases of the eyes, liver disease, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis.
Because Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue come from the patient's own body source, their homologous use is has been already regulated and approved by medical authorities.
Viability means “being alive,” which refers to the ability of stem cells to stay potent and vital throughout the processing, storage, and administration states. The rate of success for stem cells is measured by the number of living and viable stem cells The potency refers to the stem cells’ power, which indicates their strength after isolation and processing.
In a recent study, researchers explored the use of stem cells during knee joint distraction surgery. They found remarkable spontaneous cartilage repair when stem cells were evaluated. Multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and hyaluronic acid, both in the synovial fluid, can result in rapid healing. Stem cell therapy has been shown to help in many conditions.
Musculoskeletal damage, degeneration, and injuries are common health problems. Stem cells of a regenerative potential for damaged and injured tissue. Adipose SVF is use for many orthopedic applications in the clinical setting. These types of stem cells differentiate into cartilage and bone tissue, which is proven in many clinical studies. ASCs in the form of SVF possibly work by secreting cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, which stimulate healing and tissue regeneration.
To obtain adipose autologous SVF, liposuction is performed. After numbing the area using a local anesthetic, a small cannula is inserted in the abdomen or other body area and the adipose cells are gently removed via suction. The soultion obtained is called lipoaspirate.
The lipoaspirates (fat tissue components removed by aspiration) are digested with collagenase solution, which breaks down the matrix. The MSCs are released from the tissue. After being processed through centrifugation (spinning) and dilution, the ASCs are washed and isolated. The cells are processed again 3-4 times, and the end product is the SVF.
In adipose tissue, the number of stem cells derived as SVF can vary. The number of cells range from 500,000 to 2 million cells per gram of adipose tissue, and 1-10% of these cells are adult stem cells (around 4,000-200,000 in quantity).
Current clinical procedures using autologous adipose SVF include:
- Orthopedic – arthritis, tendonitis, ligament injury, soft tissue injury.
- Neurologic – MS, Post Concussion Syndrome, Parkinson’s, CRPS, RSD, Cerebral Palsy, ALS, Muscular Dystrophy, CIDP.
- Autoimmune – Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, Diabetes, Crohn’s, Sclerosis.
- Ophthalmologic – Macular Degeneration, Dry Eye, Glaucoma, Optic Neuritis.
- Pulmonary – COPD, CHF, Asthma.
- Urologic – Peyronie’s Disease, Interstitial Cystitis, Erectile Dysfunction.
- Cartilage regeneration for osteoarthritis (OA) – OA is a debilitating health condition that is common among aging people. SVF is an alternative to conservative measures, and is often used when these treatments fail. SVF may help with the underlying problem of cartilage degeneration. In a 2011 study, several patients with knee OA underwent SVF therapy and regenerating cartilage tissue.. In addition, several months after the therapy, MRI studies showed evidence of cartilage regeneration in these patients. In a 2013 study, the efficacy rate of this therapy was 65 percent for people with OA of the hips and knees, as well as those with femoral head osteonecrosis.
- Chondromalacia patellae (CMP) – This condition involves cartilaginous softening of the patellar cartilage and knee pain. In a recent research study, patients with knee CMP were underwent therapy using autologous adipose SVF. At the 3-month follow-up, the patients reported improvement in pain scores, functionality, and range of motion. In addition, post-therapy MRIs showed regeneration of the hyaline cartilage at the patellofemoral joints in all study subjects.
- Meniscal tear – The knee meniscus is a fibro-cartilaginous disc that absorbs shock in the knee. This structure if often torn with knee injuries. In a 2014 clinical study, researchers found that SVF injected helped pain and mobility for participants. In addition, meniscus cartilage regeneration was documented in patients in post-therapy MRIs.
- Osteonecrosis – This is a debilitating disorder, common in young males. The bone material dies, and this leads to collapse of the hip joint. Patients treated with autologous adipose SVF are regenerating bone in the femur (thigh bone) head that is diseased from osteonecrosis lesions. In a recent study, patients had MRI evidence of new bone and cartilage growth of the hip joint, as well as increased range of motion and decreased pain.
- Achilles tendinopathy – Tendon degeneration is often a cause of pain. The Achilles tendon runs along the heel region, and often develops pain and decrease function with injury or damage. In a 2016 randomized clinical trial with 56 patients, researchers randomly assigned the participants to a single SVF injection or a single PRP injection. The therapies were repeated at the 4 and 6-month follow-ups. SVF injection patients had faster and more pronounced improvements, and researchers concluded it was effective and safe for treating Achilles tendinopathy.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) – According to a recent clinical trial, intravenous (IV) administration of SVF had an 80 percent efficacy rate for improving symptoms of RA. In this study, the patients had adipose-derived SVF obtained in the usual manner, and then the concentrated solution was administered systemically into the body through a vein. Through normal circulation, the SVF made its way to all body systems and organs. In the study, patients had no adverse reactions.
- Multiple sclerosis (MS) – In two case report studies, patients suffering from MS all received IV administration of autologous adipose SVF. In the first study, all 3 patients reported significant improvement neurologically, and no participants suffered adverse reactions. In addition, one patient had complete remission following the therapy. Another study involved 13 patients, all who had improvement of MS symptoms following autologous SVF therapy.
Current researchers have found that most of the injected SVF fluid is reabsorbed within 2-4 days following the injection. Adipose derived stem cells attach to the lesion, however, and survive a prolonged amount of time. Adipose-derived SVFs offer many other cells in addition to MSCs. They have red blood cells, adipocytes, and white blood cells, which work together to heal the treated structure.